Creative Mind Child Development Clinic for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is Characterised by difficulty sustaining attention ,hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. It is the most common neuro-behavioral disorder with genetic predisposition and is more frequent in males than in females in general population. Females more likely present primarily with inattentive features.
It affects preschoolers, children, adolescents & adults. ADHD is often first identified in school-aged children, when it leads to disruption in classroom or problem with school work. It is a disorder of performance and production of information.
Characteristic of symptoms
- Should occur often
- Be present in more than one setting
- Persist for atleast 6 months
- Be present before the age of 12 years
- Impair function in social, academic, occupational activities
- Be excessive for the developmental level of child
- Have negatively-impacted academic, social, and/or occupational functioning
- Other causes of core symptoms are ruled out (psychiatric/ physical/neurological illness)
- Fail to pay close attention to details/make careless mistakes in schoolwork
- Difficulty in focusing on tasks or play
- Appears not to listen, even when spoken to directly
- Fails to follow through on instructions/finish schoolwork/ chores
- Trouble organizing tasks/activities/ belongings
- Avoids/dislikes tasks that require focused mental effort such as homework
- Loses items needed for tasks or activities such as toys, school assignments, pencils, and books
- Easily distracted
- Forgetfulness in daily activities (homework and chores)
- Excess fidgetiness
- Has difficulty staying seated where required (school and work)
- Be on the go, in a constant motion
- Run around or climb in situations when it is not appropriate
- Difficulty in playing/ doing an activity quietly
- Excessive talking
- Blurt out answers, interrupting the questioner
- Difficulty waiting for the turn
- Interrupt conversations/games/ activities
Clinical Subtypes: There are three different types of ADHD
- Predominantly inattention (ADD): 25–30% cases
- Predominantly hyperactive impulsive (HI): 8–10%
- Combined type ADHD : 60–70% cases
Evaluation and Assessment
- Any child 4 -18 yrs of age, who presents with academic or behavioral problems and symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, or impulsivity, should be evaluated.
- Information should be obtained from parents or guardians, teachers, and other school and mental health clinicians involved in the child’s care.
- Comprehensive evaluation for ADHD includes:
a) Confirmation of core symptoms for presence, persistence, pervasiveness and functional complications
b) Exclusion of differential diagnoses and
c) Identification of co-existing emotional, behavioral and/ or medical disorders.
Modalities of management of ADHD include behavioral interventions, medication and educational interventions (alone or in combination).